DfE Digital, Data and Technology is part of the Department for Education. We aim to deliver world-class services that improve the outcomes of children and learners in education and care. This podcast series shines a light on the human stories behind our digital and technology projects. You’ll hear about how we build and run our services, their impact, and the lessons learnt along the way. You’ll also get an insight into the people who work here and the culture we’re building.
Wednesday Feb 15, 2023
Improving equity in the workplace
Wednesday Feb 15, 2023
Wednesday Feb 15, 2023
Here’s our 5th episode of the second series of our ‘Think digital, act human’ podcast. This episode is all about the importance of diversity in the workplace.
In this episode we’re joined by an external guest, Clara Greo, who’s a freelance service designer and equity advocate.
This is a frank and honest conversation with Clara about how employers can start making small differences to improve diversity. Clara also shares her tips on how to support people of colour within an organisation - as diverse teams build better services. Any facts or figures mentioned were accurate at the time of recording in October 2022.
[intro music plays]
Adaobi Ifeachor Hello. Welcome to Think Digital Act Human, a podcast from the Department for Education where we tell you everyday stories of digital and technology specialists working on extraordinary projects. But today we've got a big one for you. We have an external guest and a brilliant one at that. Welcome to Clara Greo.
Clara Greo Thank you Adaobi. It's lovely to be here.
Adaobi Ifeachor So we know that you're a previous civil servant, so you kind of know what it's like on this side of the of the microphone, I suppose.
Clara Greo That's right. I was at GDS Government Digital Service for eight, eight, eight or nine years.
Adaobi Ifeachor And what do you do now?
Clara Greo So at the moment, I've. Well, I've just had a baby, so I'm on sort of mat (maternity) leave. But I have been running some training courses in service design.
Adaobi Ifeachor Okay, so you are a service design expert, but one of the main reasons that we're talking to you today, apart from your wonderful Clara, you're a very nice person to talk to you. Apart from that, we know that you're also someone who is how can we say this? Someone who's who enjoys talking to employers, enjoys talking to the public about the importance of what, diversity like, what would you say?
Clara Greo Yeah, I think so. Well, so when I was a lead designer at GDS, so we had a design community of I think it was over 30 designers by the end of my time there. And when I joined, it was all white men who knew each other. This is sort of 2014 and then slowly became slightly more diverse over the years. And then in the last few years, we really decided to ramp up that move towards becoming a more diverse community. And that's because. More diverse teams build better services. That's one reason. Umm it makes for a more enjoyable place to be for everyone, if it isn't just a monoculture and everyone looks the same and knows each other. It's just a more fair and equitable way to be an employer, so everybody should have an equal chance of working as a designer at GDS or working anywhere. We wanted to try and make that a bit more of a reality in our design community. And we know that there are a lot of underrepresented groups in design, in the design industry, in tech in general, and we wanted to sort of start doing something about that and to do that by leading by example really. So we looked into why we weren't matching, why, why our demographics weren't matching the demographics of the public that we served and then tried to address those problems as we saw them coming up.
Adaobi Ifeachor It does feel like the whole conversation about diversity and inclusion has become more equity. You know, like whenever I think of equity, I think of this. It's like a it's like a well-known graphic of some people looking over a fence. One of them super tall and has no problem, just looking over the fence. And then like two of the lads, like one's middle height, one's kind of like much shorter. And the idea is if, if you all stand on boxes, which is equality, you've all got the same box. Yep two of them are okay, but that shorter person still can't see over the fence. Whereas if it's about equity, ensuring people have like the same experience, then the tallest person doesn't need a box. The middle person needs only one box and the shortest person with two boxes. They're all kind of able to see over the fence.
Clara Greo I love that graphic and I particularly love an update to that where I've seen the people are all the same height, but they're starting from different positions on the grounds so is like a stepped thing on the ground. And that represents the historical oppression and sort of marginalisation of people. And then the fence is also sloped upwards. So the fence is working against people. So and I think I like that version which represents the present day sort of systems of oppression and exclusion. And I like that because it's not about, Oh, you're tall and you're really short and it's your fault that you're short and we have to give you three books it's like, No, the ground I'm standing on is lower and the fence is higher. I've got higher barriers than you do. So yeah, it's a good I'm sorry. That's not why we're here.
Adaobi Ifeachor No, that's that's a really I'm going to have to check that out and see if I can find that graphic
Clara Greo I'll find it for you yeah. I run another training course called Power Privilege and Design, which is sort of part of the whole educating in user centred design thing. And we talk about that one a lot.
Adaobi Ifeachor So before we dig into this idea of recruiting in a way that is equitable and recruiting diverse candidates, but that are I suppose diverse compared to the people you usually recruit. Let me just ask you about user centred design because there may be some people thinking, Well, if I'm designing a product, isn't all design user centred?
Clara Greo By default I think the tech industry and government tends towards not being user centred. We tend to be either policy centred, so centred around what a minister, for example, has promised to deliver or what a policy team has decided we need to deliver, or we tend to be tech centred. So we have a piece of technology that does a thing, so we're going to deploy that in some way regardless of what impact that has on people. So whether it's AI or a web chat or a new just any kind of new piece of technology it's often centred around the tech and what the tech can do and what what we can build it to do rather than on users and people and what they're trying to do and what they need to support them to do the things they're trying to do. So user centred design is all about how do we understand and engage with users and communities and what they're actually trying to do, and then how do we make sure we create products and services that helps people do those things?
Adaobi Ifeachor As a product manager, I understand in that struggle. So I think if you're in the private sector, if you work like a Start-Up, you probably have maybe some founders or co-founders who find it a little bit hard to let go of those reins. And, you know, it's kind of maybe founder driven but then in.
Clara Greo Yeah, ideas centred, yeah definitely.
Adaobi Ifeachor Yeah ideas centred and then in the public sector, I think that is a real key difference. It's not just are you trying to drive revenue or not. But there's also this whereas the the kind of momentum coming for this work coming from. And when you work in the civil service, you may have a brand new minister who's like coming in, making promises for what they'd like to help the the public. And then eventually that comes down to your team and you're like, Oh, right. Okay, let's just check whether this is actually a problem that anyone's having. So, yeah, very interesting.
Clara Greo Absolutely. And I think that's the reason I'm drawn to the public sector, is because in the private sector, it's a bit more of a difficult argument because you have to justify why being user centred will mean you make more money usually. But in the public sector, one of the reasons for public services existing. So whether it's central government or local government or NHS or whatever it is, those organisations exist to serve users. So if you're not meeting user needs, you're not doing the thing that your organisation is there to do. So it's kind of an easier argument to have with people to just say we have to be user centred because that's why we're here, that's what that's the point of government.
Adaobi Ifeachor So let's talk about this idea of recruitment and why it's important for employers to even think about diversity in terms of the types of people they're getting in the door. Because you see people who've listened to the show will know that I am originally a Devon girl and there were - I used to be a journalist back in the day - and there were people who I talked to, employers, and they'd say things like, We really want to have diverse staff, but we just can't seem to recruit people who come from diverse backgrounds, Like maybe, maybe the diversity isn't there in the population we're advertising to, or maybe they just don't hear about these things or whatever. But it was really interesting, a tweet that you made where you where you were saying, Clara, 'are you wondering where to advertise roles to get more diverse candidates to apply? Try running a careers event. The problem isn't that we're not finding out about the job. It's that we have questions and concerns that aren't being addressed'. So that's like flipping the whole thing, isn't it? Can you could you start by talking a bit more about how people who would like to hire more diverse candidates, how they can go about doing that with this careers of an idea or anything else? Any other advice you have?
Clara Greo Yeah, sure. So I think I don't think the problem is that people, people who are more diverse than your current organisation is made up of aren't hearing about the jobs. I think that's where a lot of people go to. It's like, Oh, we need to publicise it, we need to get on the right job boards or whatever it is, get on the right Twitter accounts, and then suddenly all of these black and brown people and LGBTQ people will suddenly apply for jobs. I don't, I don't think that's what we're doing wrong. I think it's unfortunately more systematic things that are stopping us from having a more diverse and equitable workforce. So things like. Is there something about your recruitment process that is excluding people? So often is it the criteria that you are scoring people on? Is it the way you've framed your job specification, the things that you've asked for, the the words that you've used in the job specification? Is it the reputation of your organisation? I mean, people talk to each other, people aren't silly. We ask people that we know what, what different places are like to work in. If your organisation just isn't being a very good place to work in or isn't safe for people with, you know, minoritized identities to exist in or isn't a good place to progress in and thrive in, then people aren't going to want to work there, which is, and that's not an easy problem to solve. I'm not pretending it is, but these are some of the reasons that people either might not be applying or might not be getting through your application process.
Adaobi Ifeachor So how can a careers event help in that circumstance then?
Clara Greo The careers event is is something that we ran a few times when I was at GDS, the Government Digital Service, and we ran I think about five careers events some were in person, some were online. And they I think one of the main things they did was turn GDS, our organisation, into people. So the government digital service is quite a sort of a well-known organisation across the tech industry and I think there's a lot of myths and kind of misunderstandings about what that organisation is. And I think one thing that the careers events did was just turn us into people that you could ask questions of and that you could have a conversation with and that were like you, and we would just talk to people answer their questions, tell them a bit about what our day was like and a lot of people would come up to us after the event and say, Oh, it was just really nice to put a put a face to this organisation or to talk to a real person or to you were also friendly or you seemed to get on with each other and you seemed to be friends when different people were presenting different things and talking to each other. And that was really nice and it just makes the organisation feel more human. I think that was sort of one of the biggest sort of non tangible things it did. As well as answering lots and lots of basic questions like, how do I apply, which you've already talked about and you know what, what does a day look like? What is career progression look like? What are you doing to improve the equity and diversity of your organisation? People would ask some really difficult questions and it wasn't always easy to to answer them. But I think just the fact that we were open to hearing those questions and trying to answer them is important.
Adaobi Ifeachor So we've heard about this idea of a careers event which, which could be a way of making your organisation seem more approachable, less intimidating, less sort of, 'Oh, that's not the type of place where I could get in' to just like opening the doors and letting people see what it's all about, who the people are and what, how they work and that sort of stuff. Do you have one last piece of advice before we go about how what every employer could do to make their recruitment better in terms of attracting and then potentially hiring on more diverse staff members?
Clara Greo Yeah, I think I think the most important thing is to listen to what your existing staff are telling you and what your perspective staff are telling you. And listen to their concerns, their questions, their worries, and then try and genuinely address some of those issues. I know that a lot of the issues will be will be big things, that it will feel difficult to change or difficult to do anything about. Or maybe it'll take a long time or maybe they won't be. Maybe they'll be small things. But if you really listen to what people's concerns are and then show that you are genuinely working on improving those things, then people are much more likely to trust your organisation, trust the leadership of your organisation and want to work there or want to stay employed there. I think retention is another thing that we haven't we haven't talked about that's obviously very closely linked to recruitment. There's no point bringing in a wonderful new, diverse workforce that then wants to leave straightaway because they're unhappy, but yeah listening and genuinely doing something and being transparent about what you're doing is really important.
Adaobi Ifeachor This is going to sound like a bit of a weird question, but how should an employer listen? Like if you. I've kind of run workshops like on my product team where the team don't quite know each other or maybe it's a bit dysfunctional. The relationship hasn't quite settled down. And you asked them a direct question and then it's kind of like tumbleweed silence. So I imagine if you were an employer an you're kinda at an all staff saying, 'how do you think we can improve?' You might not get the interaction you're hoping for. What are some some good ways of trying to listen to those views or collect them in the first place?
Clara Greo Yeah, I think two things spring to mind. The first one is go to wherever people are already telling you these things. So don't try and make a new forum or hold a new workshop or open a new form for people to fill in. People are probably already talking about what they're not happy about somewhere. So go and and listen and be open in those spaces where people already are. And the second thing is, which I've worked in places that have put up a lot of resistance to this, is have an anonymous channel for people to speak directly to leadership. And that anonymity is really, really important to get the honesty that you need and to get around any trust issues you have, especially if there are already, if there's already some broken trust in the organisation from management down to people who are not management, Having an anonymous way of talking and asking questions and giving feedback can be really, really important. And there's there's always this fear of what will come through anonymously. And I think I think that's really unfounded and really blocks people from hearing some really important messages and, and often people who don't feel safe or who don't feel confident or who feel like they might be might be discriminated against because if they ask what their genuine questions are, non anonymously will will feel much more comfortable doing that anonymously. Those are my two things. Yeah. Listen to where people are and and have a way of asking anonymously.
Adaobi Ifeachor So we've already talked about equitable recruitment and things that employers can do to try and improve their recruitment processes. For those people who are already inside any type of organisation, public or private, if they want to progress into senior roles, into senior leadership roles, are there specific things that organisations can do to support that? Because I'm thinking so often of, not even necessarily the civil service, but other places where I've worked, where it seems actually you get a lot of you get a lot of us brown skinned people in on the sort of, you know, the first floor, but then the higher up the organisation you go, the, the, the few people seem to be retained, the few people make it to those higher echelons. And I'm wondering like, is there is there something else that can be done?
Clara Greo This is such an interesting question to be talking about right now. I had a discussion last week with an amazing person who's working in a small group of three to develop a school for black designers, and they've decided that their focus is going to be on how to get black people higher up into different levels of of public sector organisations. So it's strange that I'm having this conversation again, if you want to look up the work that they're doing it, it's led by a woman called Tayo Medupin. And I think if you look, if you Google Hello Brave, school for black designers, you'll find the work they're doing. But they've sort of done some research and worked out that storytelling and helping underrepresented groups tell their stories and sell themselves is probably the most important thing. You know, we have the skills, we are qualified, we are excellent at our jobs. So the theory behind the storytelling thing is that we're just not good at necessarily framing it in the way that the recruitment process wants to hear and that that and the more senior levels want to hear. I'm worried that it doesn't matter how good we get in storytelling. There's things at play in the system which mean that the underrepresented groups will just continue to be underrepresented because of the ways decisions are made and because of the sort of structural inequities built into the recruitment promotion processes. And that's something that, yeah, we have to we have to hope that that's not sure that those things are being reduced over time, things like things like bias. I mean, it's all it's mostly unconscious bias, isn't it? And and I think also not being in those decision making rooms and not knowing people already, I think your networks are really important. So maybe some other things that would be really great would be. Improving community and improving networking opportunities and improving kind of mentoring and things like that. We had a we had an interesting an interesting series of talks when I was at GDS (Government Digital Service) where senior civil servants would talk to the rest of the organisation about how they got into their role and sort of how they found doing that role. And what I noticed from those talks was so often it was, oh, I was I was chatting to another senior civil servant, I happen to have coffee with this, this man or this woman. And I, you know, I my, my dad was friends with whoever and and those types of connections were what gave people the opportunities to be known and to get the roles and to get the skills needed to do the roles. And I to be honest, I don't know how you replicate that for for other groups that are underrepresented.
Adaobi Ifeachor Well. I'm not saying I have the answer here or the DfE has the answer here, but within a month of me joining DfE. My line manager at the time said, 'Would you like to go on to like a leadership course that's aimed at people of colour?' And I was in my head, I was like, No, I don't. No, actually I do not. I think I just politely said that the main reason was because in a previous place I'd worked, I'd really thrown myself into like staff networks, co-chairing here, co-chairing there, and I was exhausted and I was like, I don't want to I can't do I can't do anything else. But when I read the sort of like blurb of what it was about and the fact that my manager would be going through complimentary training at the same time as me, I was like, okay, let me give this a bit of a, let me give this a bit of a look. I think it was called Power of Choice. That was I think it's like an external thing that comes into companies or whatever. But the reason I bring this up is because of when you said you don't know how to replicate these conversations. I don't know how to replicate them either. But one thing that we were told to do in this in this kind of scheme was to work on Vic Project. V I C. And I'm going to completely forget what they they all umm, what those things meant now. But I think there was visibility. I was like impact. I think it was impact or importance, but basically like a high impact, high importance and C was complexity. So what they were saying was, you need to make sure after you finish this training course you need to pick yourself out a VIC project. Have a look around your organisation for where you might be able to help with something or lead on a project and maybe speak to your line manager about how you might be able to create a VIC project if there's not an obvious candidate. And the idea was you were putting yourself out there on something that was, you know, valuable, visible, that had high impact and was complex. So that you would be seen by, you know, senior management to be doing something that was that was really valuable. And and so they might not have had time to have a cup of tea with you. They might not knew you exist before that, but after they saw this VIC project, they'd be like, Hmm, who is that? Who is that person over there? I am very impressed with them.
Clara Greo I totally get that. And I think that is probably a really good strategy for people who want to progress, who haven't been noticed. But the thing that worries me about that is that we're saying that the underrepresented groups need to work harder, work on more complex, more visible projects, have less choice. I mean, maybe, maybe I just want to do that quiet little project in the corner that nobody's noticing. But I can't, if I want to progress in my career I have to go and do the highly visible, complex, noticeable ones. So, you know, it's again, putting the burden on the underrepresented groups to fix their career paths, you know, learn something, do better.
Adaobi Ifeachor Interesting.
Clara Greo Whereas if if you're not in an underrepresented group, you've had the cup of coffee. You don't have to work on the VIC project because they've seen you. They've noticed you.
Adaobi Ifeachor Yeah, I know. I know what you're saying. I wanted to come back to some facts and figures that come out of DfE recently. The first one being that in 2018, not that long ago, the percentage of people from ethnic minority backgrounds was 17.2%. And now it's 19.6% in 2022. Now, the reason why I find that interesting is because the late the last, I think, public census that went that happened put like the amount of people of colour or ethnic minorities at 15%. So does that mean then, Clara, if we're if we're almost 5% higher than the, you know, the, the, the level in the UK as a population as a whole. Does that mean our job's done? Does that mean I mean we can now stop any active pushing and recruitment for people of colour.
Clara Greo Sure, if you want if you want us all to disappear again. I think the point you raised earlier that that people of colour tend to be in the more junior roles in the lower levels, find it harder to progress, find it harder to move up to senior decision making places where they'll actually be able to make an impact and make a change. So if one of the things we're aiming for by having a diverse representation of people in the civil service is that it can impact the services we deliver and make those services more equitable, more just benefit the people out in the population, Then the people inside the civil service need to be in roles where they can make that change and where they have an influence on those decisions. And if we're not getting there, if we're not happy in our roles, if we're not progressing, if we're not getting on to projects where we can make a difference, or getting into positions where we can make a difference, then you know, you can have as many percentage people as you like. It just doesn't make any change.
Adaobi Ifeachor That's interesting, isn't it? Like you're kind of suggesting that that stats of how many ethnic minorities are interviewing, how many ethnic minorities work for your company may actually be hiding a more systemic problem. That is, are those people are the same people staying? And how far up in the organisation are they going? Does that mean do you think that perhaps any employers listening should think again about their sort of KPIs? Take a look at whether they might be hiding other issues.
Clara Greo Yeah, definitely you need to look at what you're measuring and work out what needs to be measured. And probably you'll need to do that by talking to people of colour in your organisation and working out what's going on for them. If you've got 19% people of colour in your organisation, but 12% of those are on the verge of leaving because they're so unhappy, it's not a good statistic. So you need to work out what matters to them. What, what, what are the problems, what are the barriers they're facing? Are they all burning out? Are they spending all their time in the in the BAME networks not getting recognised for all that extra work they're doing? So what's going on? And is it actually making a difference? And I think we probably need to start measuring outcomes of services. So what the what the outcomes are in the services that we deliver and have a look at how that ties back to the make up of the people who deliver and create the service. I think that's a really interesting thing that we haven't done enough of.
Adaobi Ifeachor Wow. I've never even really thought about that before.
Clara Greo Because that's one of the aims of doing this, isn't it? We're trying to make our services better, not just make our organisations better, make the actual things we deliver better. So let's, let's measure that and see if it's a correlation.
Adaobi Ifeachor So as an example, a project I'm product manager on at the moment is creating a new digital service for social worker assessment, something that is not coming at it from a sort of, 'are you meet your standards', but it's more 'how can we help you? How can we support you?' That sort of thing. It's going to be it doesn't exist at the moment. It's going to be created. So how would how would your suggestion work then? Would we look at I don't know how many, I'm throwing out something crazy here, but how about looking at how many social workers from different sort of backgrounds are being retained or.
Clara Greo Yeah, being retained, progressing? You could even look at, because the the the aim of the social workers role is to support children and families. Right? So, I mean, I haven't really worked in this domain. So you could look at the, the outcomes for different children and families with different demographics and see if changing the demographics of the social workers and the demographics of the people who deliver the service that you're working on. How how that impacts through to children and families would be really interesting. So I can imagine, you know, if there was a Romani Traveller family. They might have better outcomes if their social worker understood more about that and if the people who developed the systems at the social workers are using or relying on understood more about that community. Then that will have that will have a better impact on those end users, the children and families at the other end. So, you know, it's kind of we need to measure the impacts downstream and upstream. I don't know how you draw this connection because there's so many variables along that route.
Adaobi Ifeachor I was just going to say, I was just thinking like even for for my small part of the, my small cog in the machine is looking specifically at like social worker assessments, but there must be so many other variables like pay, like pay or like working hours that that contribute to it. But it's a fascinating conversation. Anyway, but let's move on for time then, Clara. So one other, one other stat I want to throw your way was that the the percentage of people of colour in the senior civil service or rather, I should say, the way they've written it, which is people from ethnic minority backgrounds was 11.1% in March of this year (2022 when we're recording) and the target set for next year is 13%. Now that is below that 15% level of ethnic minority people backgrounds in the UK. So it's not reflecting as much as exists in the reality of the UK. However, what I believe is the case and my producer Lou will let me know if I am off the mark too much here is that when they started measuring this back in 2015, it was 4%, 4% went to 11%. So the reason why I'm bringing this up is, sometimes you look ahead and you see the mountain that you have to climb. And I'm really I'm focusing this externally on employers who might be listening, thinking we want to we want to increase our numbers. But, you know, we don't know where to start and it looks terrible at the moment. But you can look at the mountain ahead, but then you can also turn around and look at like how far you've come in a short time. I don't think it's possible to go from 4% to 11.1% in a couple of years without concerted effort, without you attempting to deliberately make changes. So. Yeah. I mean, what kind of thoughts about those figures, first of all?
Clara Greo I think that's great. And I think having figures can be really useful for people to keep them focussed and to, you know, to measure progress and to feel that you're doing something. It's not enough because you can, you can get distracted by those numbers. So you could you could focus on, you know, just getting that number as high as you can, as quickly as you can, and not worry about the experience that those people are having in your organisation. And something that we used to remind ourselves of occasionally was that. You might be doing harm to those people of colour to bring them into an organisation that is not there to, that can't support you. So, you know, you might be asking people to come into an organisation where they're not safe, they're not supported, they're not going to be able to progress, they're not getting as much money as they could somewhere else. They're not getting the community they need to grow. So you need to make sure you're actually doing the right thing by those people that are boosting up those numbers for you.
Adaobi Ifeachor That's so true. I grew up in Devon, which is and I like to joke that in the nineties my family was the black population of the town I grew up in. So, like, sometimes I, I kid you not, I kid, you not, I remember so many conversations started by well-meaning people who had never met a black person before. And so they were like, Hey, hey, I know someone in I know someone in, you know, Exeter. And their black. She's called. She's called she's called Charlotte. Do you know her. And it was kind of like, it meant that at first I used to find it really irritating. But then I realised I am literally the ambassador for all black people in this moment and how I react to this question.
Clara Greo Why should you have to carry that?
Adaobi Ifeachor Well, this is this is my point. My point is that sometimes. You realise that's on you. And sometimes you're just tired of it being on you. And you're like, if I thought that I was joining an organisation where, that I was going to have to be the ambassador. I was going to have to be the pioneer. I would think twice about joining that organisation, honestly.
Clara Greo Yeah, it's a it's a huge burden.
Adaobi Ifeachor And I guess I haven't really thought about it that way until you said umm you know, trying to increase your numbers, just the numbers alone might make you ignore or not even see other things that have to come along with the number boost. That's so fascinating. Clara, I could talk to you all day. You know what, that is literally all we have time for. Thank you so much.
Clara Greo Thank you so much Adaobi that was lovely to chat to you.
Adaobi Ifeachor What a lovely conversation. I really hope that you listeners have enjoyed it. I hope we haven't made you feel too uncomfortable. But if there's one thing you know about this show by now, it is that we don't stray away from the difficult conversations. No, indeed, we dive in headfirst. So, Clara Greo, if people do want to get in touch with you, where can they do that? On the interwebs?
Clara Greo Mastodon I'm on Mastodon @claragt.
Adaobi Ifeachor Perfect. And listeners, if you would like to get hold of us, if you want to tell us what you thought, I'm saying this reluctantly. I don't know what people are going to think, but if you want to tell us what you thought, then Google our blog, DfE, Digital blog, and you'll find us we're the DfE Digital and Technology blog. Or you can, I suppose you could try us on Twitter, it's DfE_DigitalTech. So this podcast was brought to you by the Department for Education. Thank you so much to our production team behind the scenes and of course thanks from me your host Adaobi Ifeachor. Bye bye.
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